Workforce diversity is a reality of the 21st Century and thus organisational leaders across the globe are keen to understand workplace diversity and not only create favourable conditions to efficiently utilize the potential of its diverse human resources, but also alleviate the destructive tendencies of diversity. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of workforce diversity on employee performance in Jumuia Resorts in Kenya. The specific objectives are gender diversity; age diversity; ethnic diversity; and education diversity on employee performance. The study used the Weecha-Maldonado’s Model; Social Identification - Categorisation Theory; Similarity-Attraction Theory; and System Transformation Theory to establish and predict the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. Empirical data shows that high levels of diversity improve performance though with some variations. The study would be useful to hotel management as it will help them to manage diversity and take appropriate steps to turn their hotels around and gain competitive advantage over their peers. The study adopted a descriptive research design using census survey method targeting a population of 146 employees of Jumuia Resorts in Kenya. Quantitative data was collected using questionnaires which were then analysed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics on SPSS version 20; and summarised using percentages, means, standard deviations and frequencies. The information was presented using tables, charts and figures. The research findings indicated that Gender Diversity and Ethnic Diversity had a positive effect on Employee Performance, while Age Diversity and Education Diversity had a negative effect on Employee Performance of Jumuia Resorts. The findings show that Gender Diversity and Age Diversity had a significant positive and negative effect respectively on the Employee Performance ratings; while Ethnic Diversity and Education Diversity had an insignificant positive and negative effect respectively on the Employee Performance rating, at 95% level of confidence. The study recommends a mix of various and homogenous work teams in each department depending on the circumstances. The study also recommends further research in the hospitality industry as a whole; and that measures of diversity should be enhanced to take into account for the unique feelings of marginalization among employees.

Full Text:




Abbas, Q., Hameed, A., & Waheed, A. (2011). Gender Discrimination & Its Effect on Employee Performance/Productivity. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 15, 170 - 176.

Amin, A., Saeed, R., Lodhi, R. N., Mizna, S. A., & Rida-e-Tehreem. (2013). The Impact of Employees Training On the Job Performance in Education Sector of Pakistan. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 17(9), 1273 - 1278.

Ariss, S. S., & Timmins, S. A. (2009). Employee Education and Job Performance: Does Education Matter? Public Personnel Management, 32(4), 16 - 21.

Awiti, A. O., & Scott, B. (2016). The Kenya Youth Survey Report. Nairobi: the Agha Khan University.

Bakan, I. (2011). The Importance of Formal Employee Education in the World of Growing Uncertaintly. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(4), 341 - 355.

Bertolino, M., Truxillo, D. M., & Fraccaroli, F. (2013). Age effects on perceived personality and job performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(7/8), 867 - 885.

Bhalla, V., Caye, J. -M., Dyer, A., Dymond, L., Morrieux, Y., & Orlander, P. (2011). High Performing Organisations. Boston: Boston Consulting Group.

Bousquet, F., Botta, A., Alinovi, L., Barreteau, O., Bossio, D., Brown, K., . . . Staver., C. (2016). Resilience and development: mobilizing for transformation. Ecology and Society, 21(3), 40 - 47.

Bowman, W. R., & Mehay, S. L. (2012). Graduate education and employee performance: evidence from military personnel. Economics of Education Review, 18(4), 453 - 463.

Burns, C., Barton, K., & Kerby, S. (2012). The State of Diversity in Today’s Workforce. New York: Center for American Progress.

Craswel, G. (2011). A Literature Review Guide. London: ANU.

Deloitte. (2014). The Kenya Human Capital Trends: Engaging the 21st-century workforce. Kenya: Deloitte.

Dishman, L. (2015, May 15). Millennials Have A Different Definition Of Diversity And Inclusion. Retrieved January 3, 2017, from Fast Company Website: https://www.fastcompany.com/3046358/the-new-rules-of-work/millennials-have-a-different-definition-of-diversity-and-inclusion

Erhardt, N. L., Werbel, J. D., & Shrader, C. B. (2013). Board of Director Diversity and Firm Financial Performance. Corporate Governance:An International Review, 11(2), 102 - 111.

Garnero, A., & Rycx, F. (2013). The heterogeneous effects of workforce diversity on productivity, wages and profits. Brussels: Belgian Federal Government.

Green, C., Jegadeesh, N., & Tang, Y. (2009). Gender and Job Performance: Evidence from Wall Street. Financial Analysts Journal, 65(6), 1 - 14.

Grimes, D. A., & Schulz, K. F. (2002). Descrptive Studies: What they can do and cannot do. The Lancet, 8(2), 145 - 149.

Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., & Bell, M. P. (2008). Beyond Relational Demography: Time and the Effects of Surface and Deep level Diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 96 - 107.

Hartog, D. N., Boselie, P., & Paauwe, J. (2004). Performance Management: A Model and Research Agenda. APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW, 53(4), 556 -569.

Hassan, B., & Ogunkoya, O. (2014). Demographic Variables and Job Performance: Any Link? Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica), 4, 19 - 30.

Hoogendoorn, S., & Praag, M. v. (2012). Ethnic Diversity and Team Performance: A Field Experiment. Bonn, Germany: IZA.

Ismael, A., & Peter, A. (2010). Etnicity and Diversity and the Performance of Doctors. Manchester: National Clinical Assessment Authority.

Janssens, M., & Steyaert, C. (2010). Theories of Diversity within Organisation Studies: Debates and Future Trajectories. St Gallen: University of St Gallen.

Joseph, D., & Selvaraj, P. C. (2015). The Effects of Work Force Diversity on Employee Performance in Singapore Organisations. International Journal of Business Administration, 6(2), 17 - 29.

Jumuia Resorts. (2014, March 16). About Us. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from Jumuia Resorts Website: http://www.resortjumuia.com/index.php/pages/about

Kaane, H. L. (2014). Kenya Country Report for the 2014 Ministerial Conference on Youth Employment. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.

Kahtani, A. A. (2013). Employee Emotional Intelligence and Employee Performance in the Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia: A Proposed Theoretical Framework. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(9), 80 - 95.

Kenny, E. J., & Briner, R. B. (2007). Ethnicity and behaviour in organizations: A review of British research. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 437 - 457.

Khan, N., Ahmad, N., Iqbal, N., & Haider, N. (2014). Relationship of Training and Education with Employee Performance in Financial Institutions. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 40(2), 150 - 156.

Kochan, T., Bezrukova, K., Ely, R., Jackson, S., Joshi, A., Jehn, K., . . . Thomas, D. (2011). The Effects of Diversity on Business Performance: Report of the Diversity Research Network. Human Resource Management, 42(1), 3 - 21.

Korte, R. F. (2007). A review of social identity theory with implications for training and development. JEIT, 31(3), 166 - 180.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 9(5), 607 - 610.

Martin, G. C. (2014). The Effects Of Cultural Diversity In The Workplace. Journal of Diversity Management, 9(2), 89 - 92.

McEvoy, G., Cascio, M., & Wayne, F. (2009). Cumulative evidence of the relationship between employee age and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1, 11 - 17.

Milliken, F. J., & Martins, L. L. (2009). Searching for Common Threads: Understanding the Common Effects of Diversity in Multiple Groups. Academy of Management Review, 21(2), 402 - 433.

Mugenda, & Mugenda. (2003). Research Methods, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.

NCIC. (2013). The Status of Social Cohesion in Kenya. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.

NCPWD. (2011). National Survey. Nairobi: NCPWD.

Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2009). How Broadly Does Education Contribute to job performance? Personnel Psychology, 62, 89 - 134.

Ngechu, M. (2004). Understanding the Research Process and Methods:An introduction to Research Methods. Nairobi: Acts Press.

O'Flynn, J., Riciotti, A., Nicholas, S., Lau, K., Sammartino, A., & Fisher, N. (2011). The Theory of Diversity and Group Performance. Sydney: Australian Center for International Business (ACIB).

Omollo, J. (2010). The Dynamics and Trends of Employment in Kenya. Nairobi: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Orodho, J. A. (2009). Techniques of writing Research Proposal and Reports in Education and social Sciences. Maseno: Kanezja.

Pitts, D. W., & O’Toole, J. (2010). Diversity, Representation & Performance: Evidence about the Ethnicity of Public Organizations. Athens: Unversity of Georgia.

Republic of Kenya. (2010). First Bi-annual Report on the Implementation of Thirty Percent Affirmative Action on Employement and Recruitment of Women in the Public Service. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.

Ridley, D. (2008). The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. New York: NavPress.

Simson, R. (2015). Patronage or Meritocracy? Public Sector Employment in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda after Independence. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Skirbekk, V. (2013). Age and Individual Productivity: A Literature Survey. Rostock, Germany.: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.

Smith, C., & Turner, S. (2015). The Radical Transformation of Diversity and Inclusion: The Millennial Influence. New York, NY: Deloitte University Leadership Center for Inclusion, Deloitte LLP.

Teune, H., & Mlinar, Z. (1979). The Developmental Logic of Social Systems. American Political Science Review, 73(4), 1135 - 1137.

Turner, A. G. (2003). Sampling Frame. Washingtone, D. C.: UN.

Ufuophu-Biri, E., & Iwu, C. G. (2014). Job Motivation, Job Performance and Gender Relations in the Broadcast Sector in Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(16), 191 - 198.

Wambui, T. W., Wangombe, J. G., Muthura, M. W., Kamau, A. W., & Jackson, S. M. (2013). Managing Workplace Diversity:A Kenyan Pespective. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 199 - 218.

Warr, P. (2013). In What Circumstances Does Employee Age Vary with Performance? European Work and Organisational Psychologist, 3(3), 237 - 249.


  • There are currently no refbacks.