Loise Muchiri, Dr. Annemarie Wairimu Mungai


The general objective of the study was to determine the relationship between evaluation approaches and sustainable development of slum upgrading programme in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The specific objectives were to examine the relationship between evaluation approaches; reflexive approach, constructivist, and sustainable development of slum upgrading programme in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The study was guided by theory of change, and program theory. This study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population for this research was slum upgrading programme in Nairobi County. The department of slum upgrading has 12 project managers and 60 monitoring and evaluation officers. This study used questionnaires to collect data. Questionnaires were administered through drop and pick method. Pilot test was conducted with 10% of the respondents 1 project manager and 6 monitoring and evaluation officers. This study used content and construct validity. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient was used to test questionnaire reliability. Statistical Packages for Social Sciences was used to analyze quantitative data using descriptive and inferential analysis techniques (SPSS Version 28). Findings were tabulated. The regression analysis unveiled significant relationships between evaluation approaches and sustainable development within Nairobi City County's slum upgrading programs. The study found that four evaluation approach variables collectively accounted for 70.5% of the variance in sustainable development outcomes, indicating their substantial impact. Specifically, the reflexive approach (B = 0.447, p < 0.05), constructivist approach (B = 0.600, p < 0.05), were identified as pivotal factors influencing sustainable development. These findings underscore the critical role of evaluation approaches in enhancing the effectiveness and sustainability of slum upgrading initiatives. Therefore, it is recommended that stakeholders involved in slum upgrading programs prioritize the adoption and integration of comprehensive evaluation approaches to optimize development outcomes and ensure long-term sustainability. Furthermore, future research endeavors should explore additional factors that contribute to sustainable development within slum upgrading programs to offer a more comprehensive understanding of their dynamics and facilitate informed decision-making for urban development in Nairobi City County.

Key Words: Evaluation Approaches, Sustainable Development, Slum Upgrading Programme, Reflexive Approach, Constructivist, Nairobi City County

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