Paul Omolo Okumu, Prof. Dorothy Akinyi Amwata, Prof. Mathews Godrick Bulitia, Dr. John K.M. Wandaka


Wildlife-based tourism significantly contributes to Kenya's tourism industry, particularly through attractions like the Big Five: elephant, lion, rhino, buffalo, and leopard. In 2019, the tourism sector directly contributed 8.8% to Kenya’s GDP, amounting to KES 790 billion (USD 7.9 billion), and created over 1.1 million jobs, representing 8.3% of the national job market. Despite the extensive protected areas in the Amboseli-Tsavo Ecosystem, visitor numbers remain suboptimal, limiting its socio-economic potential. This study explores how destination brand image and stakeholder roles influence the attractiveness of wildlife parks in this ecosystem. Using an embedded mixed-method research design, data were collected from 440 park visitors, 54 tourism managers, and 28 tourism experts through stratified, convenience, and purposive sampling. Reliability was tested using Cronbach’s Alpha, and data analysis involved descriptive statistics, regression analyses, and thematic analysis. Findings showed that cognitive, affective, and conative images significantly influence park attractiveness, explaining 49.9% of the variance. Park visitors rated the parks highly in terms of beauty, likelihood of revisiting, attractiveness, and overall satisfaction. The study recommends robust monitoring and evaluation to enhance marketing efforts and suggests further research on destination competitiveness and stakeholder collaboration.


Key Words: Destination Brand Image Cognitive Image, Affective Image, And Conative Image

Stakeholder Roles, Attractiveness Wildlife Parks

Full Text:



Aaker, D. A. (2018). Aaker on Branding: 20 Principles that Drive Success. New York: Morgan James Publishing.

Afsar, B., et al. (2019). Impact of conative destination image on tourists’ loyalty. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(2), 681-699.

Akel, K., & Cakir, S. (2022). Influence of theme park experiences on visitor satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 28(1), 56-72.

Buul, V., & Omundi, R. (2017). Strategies for Enhancing Wildlife Tourism in Kenya. Kenya Journal of Tourism, 5(1), 87-105.

Candela, G., et al. (2015). Tourism Economics: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives. New York: Springer.

Carballo, R. R., Leon, C. J., & Carballo, M. M. (2015). The influence of the tourist destination image on loyalty: The mediating role of tourist satisfaction. International Journal of Tourism Research, 17(2), 213-222.

Cheng, Y. H., et al. (2016). Brand loyalty in theme parks: The influence of brand satisfaction and brand attachment. Tourism Management Perspectives, 20, 52-58.

Chi, C. G. Q., & et al. (2020). Destination branding and tourist loyalty: The role of brand equity. Journal of Travel Research, 59(3), 413-428.

Chongwa, M. (2012). The Early Days of Wildlife Hunting in Kenya. Journal of Environmental Conservation, 39(4), 301-311.

Dwyer, L., & Kim, C. (2003). Destination competitiveness: Determinants and indicators. Current Issues in Tourism, 6(5), 369-414.

Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2003). The Meaning and Measurement of Destination Image. Journal of Tourism Studies, 14(1), 37-48.

Freeman, R. E. (2019). Stakeholder Theory: Concepts and Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Frias, D. M., Rodriguez, M. A., & Castaneda, J. A. (2020). The role of brand image and brand loyalty in the tourist destination choice process. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 18, 100462.

Galant, A., & Cadez, S. (2017). Corporate social responsibility and performance: The role of the interactive use of management control systems. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 63, 31-46.

Gartner, W. C. (1994). Image formation process. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 2(2-3), 191-216.

Government of the Republic of Kenya. (2007). Vision 2030: A Competitive and Prosperous Kenya. Nairobi: Government of the Republic of Kenya.

Harrison, R. L., & Jara-Moroni, P. (2015). Behavioral learning theory in marketing: A return to basics. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(15-16), 1723-1739.

Jebbouri, A., Martín-Santana, J. D., & Rodríguez, L. (2022). Analyzing the role of destination branding in influencing tourist perceptions. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 23, 100291.

Jin, X., & Sparks, B. A. (2017). Barriers to sustainable tourism in protected areas: A case study of China. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(6), 938-954.

Kaliappen, N., & Hilman, H. (2017). Enhancing Organizational Performance through Strategic Alignment of Cost Leadership Strategy and Competitor Orientation. Journal of Business Strategy, 38(5), 12-22.

Kamer, L. (2022). Kenya’s accommodation and restaurant services post-COVID-19. Statista. Retrieved from Statista.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics [KNBS]. (2023). Kenya Economic Survey Report. Retrieved from KNBS.

Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). (2019). Annual Report on Wildlife Parks. Retrieved from KWS.

Kim, H. B., & Lee, S. (2005). The effects of tourism resources on the competitiveness of tourism destinations: A study of Jeju Island. Tourism Management, 26(2), 257-267.

Korir, J., Nthiga, R., & Ogutu, J. (2013). The Role of Wildlife Tourism in Kenya's Tourism Industry. Retrieved from ResearchGate.

Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2012). Marketing Management (14th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Lind, P. (2018). Reinforcement and Behavioral Learning in Tourism Marketing. Tourism Review, 73(1), 2-19.

Maingi, S. W. (2014). Park Branding and its Influence on Tourist Behavior in Kenya. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 3(2), 1-15.

Maingi, S. W., & Waithaka, J. (2014). Wildlife and Tourism: A Sustainable Approach for Kenya. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 3(2), 1-15.

Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Mazanec, J. A., Wöber, K. W., & Zins, A. H. (2007). Tourism destination competitiveness: From definition to explanation? Journal of Travel Research, 46(1), 86-95.

Munyoki, J. M., & Mwai, M. (2018). Branding Strategies for Tourism Products in Kenya. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 10(2), 45-54.

Ndivo, R. M., Waudo, J. N., & Waswa, F. (2012). Examining Kenya’s Tourist Destinations’ Appeal: The Perspectives of Domestic Tourism Market. Journal of Tourism Hospitality, 1(103).

Nguyen, T. T., & et al. (2022). Destination competitiveness: A systematic literature review. Tourism Management Perspectives, 42, 100963.

Nord, W. R., & Peter, J. P. (1980). A Behavior Modification Perspective on Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 44(3), 36-47.

Oklevik, O., et al. (2019). Competitiveness and differentiation in protected areas: An analysis of competitive strategies. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 92-104.

Onatski, A., Wang, H., & Wharton, R. (2012). Branding and Destination Marketing: A Review. Tourism Economics, 18(1), 1-22.

Osabiya, B. J. (2015). The impact of tourism motivation on destination loyalty. Tourism Management, 52, 506-518.

Pacesila, M. (2014). Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory: Its application to understanding stakeholder involvement in tourism. Journal of Business Research, 9(3), 45-56.

Phillips, R. (2003). Stakeholder Theory and Organizational Ethics. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Porter, M. E. (1979). How competitive forces shape strategy. Harvard Business Review, 57(2), 137-145.

Porter, M. E., & Millar, V. E. (2005). How information gives you competitive advantage. Harvard Business Review, 63(4), 149-160.

Ranasinghe, R., & et al. (2019). Visitor satisfaction and park management in protected areas. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 27, 100228.

Ray, M. L. (1975). Marketing Communications and the Hierarchy of Effects. New Models for Mass Communication Research, 3(2), 147-176.

Rothschild, M. L. (1981). Behavioral learning theory: Its relevance to marketing and promotions. Journal of Marketing, 45(2), 70-78.

Sarwar, M. Z., & Siddiqui, S. H. (2021). The role of brand equity in marketing: A case study of the banking industry. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 26(1), 36-49.

Shin, Y., et al. (2021). Behavioral learning and tourist decision-making: A case study of destination loyalty. Journal of Travel Research, 60(3), 540-556.

Šimková, E., & Holzner, J. (2014). Motivation of Tourism Participants. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150, 648-656.

Souiden, N., Ladhari, R., & Chiadmi, N. E. (2017). Destination Personality and Destination Image. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 41(2), 171-193.

Stroebel, K. (2016). Competitiveness of African Wildlife Tourism Destinations. Journal of Tourism Research, 12(3), 213-232.

Stukalina, Y., & Pavlyuk, D. (2021). Exploring the impact of brand equity on tourist loyalty: A case study of Latvian resorts. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 4(3), 382-399.

Stylidis, D., et al. (2017). Destination image, on-site experience and place attachment: Evidence from a Mediterranean island. Tourism Management, 60, 19-29.

Susniene, D., & Jurkauskas, A. (2007). The Stakeholder Theory in Public Policy Analysis. Public Administration and Development, 27(1), 35-41.

Tran, X., et al. (2019). The role of destination image in tourism destination loyalty. Journal of Travel Research, 58(6), 967-981.

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Weru, J. (2021). Destination Image and Post-Visit Behavior among Foreign MICE Travelers in Nairobi. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 46, 102-110.

Williams, J., Brown, T., & Van Dyke, T. (2013). Stakeholder collaboration and destination branding. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2(1), 1-9.

World Travel and Tourism Council [WTTC]. (2019). Kenya Economic Impact Report. Retrieved from WTTC.

Wu, C. H., & Chen, C. Y. (2019). Brand attachment and brand loyalty: Evidence from the banking industry. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 37(6), 1472-1489.

Xu, Y., et al. (2018). Destination brand love: Testing a model of antecedents and outcomes. Tourism Management, 65, 86-96.

Zenker, S., & Beckmann, S. C. (2013). My place is not your place – different place brand knowledge by different target groups. Journal of Place Management and Development, 6(1), 6-17.

Zhang, H. Q. (2015). The Impact of Brand Image on Consumer Behavior: A Study on Branded Dairy Products. Journal of Dairy Science, 98(1), 1-8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.