Zamzam Mohamed, Prof. Ngugi Karanja, Dr. Jared Deya


Universities in Kenya today are operating in a highly turbulent and dynamic environment as a result of liberalization of the higher education industry, resulting in an influx of many players. To deal with the changes and high levels of competition, it requires Kenyan universities to have effective strategic leadership practices to enhance performance for their universities, especially when Kenya integrates into the regional and global markets. The general objective of this study was to determine the relationship between human capital development and performance of universities in Kenya. The study was based on positivist philosophy of science which sought to verify the propositions through empirical test by measuring the relationships between the dependent and independent variables. The study used descriptive research design. The target population for this study were all the 64 chartered universities in Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used for primary data collection. The questionnaire was pilot tested to determine its validity and reliability. The study used both primary data and secondary data. Primary data was gathered from top management, university councils and workers’ representatives of the universities under study. Secondary data was collected from journals, books, internet searches and articles through secondary data collection sheet. Data collected was organized in spreadsheets for the purpose of analysis, it was coded and entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 29.0) for analysis. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to analyze the data. Correlation and regression analysis was conducted to find the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Data was presented on tables and graphs. The pilot study comprised of ten percent (10%) of equivalent of study respondents amounting to 27 respondents. The overall Cronbach Alpha value for reliability was 0.858. The validity of the questionnaire was tested using construct validity. The study concludes that human capital is a resource which has a positive influence on the performance of the universities in Kenya. From the study, short courses equip employees with knowledge about their learners, in-house training seminars heIp employees to acquire knowledge that continuously improves their performance, regular meetings with employees for acquiring knowledge and employee training results to employee commitment and engagement. This study therefore recommends that the management should support human capital development to enable improve the organizations’ productivity, improve efficiency in service delivery and provide creative insight that allow the management to look at things from a different perspective.

Key Words: Human Capital Development, Performance Of Universities, Human Capital Theory  

Full Text:



Al-Shourah, A. A., Irtaimeh, H. J., & Al-Shawabakeh, K. M. (2019). The knowledge management processes and its role in improving organizational effectiveness: A field study Jordanian commercial banks. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 3(6), 78-87.

Andrews, P. W. S. (1952). Industrial Analysis in Economics in Oxford Studies in the Price Mechanism. Clarendon Press. Journal of Industrial Economics

Awan, K. Z., Qureshi, I. W., & Arif, S. (2017). The effective leadership style in NGOs: Impact of servant leadership style on employees work performance and mediation effect of work motivation. International Journal of Economics and Management, 1(11), 43-56.

Choudhury, J., & Mishra, B. B. (2019). Theoretical and empirical investigation of impact of developmental HR configuration on human capital management. International Business Research, 3(4), 181

Churchill, G.A. (1996). Basic Marketing Research (third Edition), Fort Worth, TX: The Dryden Press.

Claiborne, R. (2019). Why is knowledge management important?. Inside business 360, august 18, 2011.

Coglianese, C. (2018). Measuring regulatory performance: Evaluating the impact of regulation and regulatory policy. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD).

Cooper, D.R. &Schindler, P.S. (11th Ed). (2011).Business Research Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin Publishers.

Dimitrov, V., & Jain, P. C. (2018). The Information Content of Changes in Financial Leverage. Available at SSRN 433820.

Haberberg, A. (2020). Swatting SWOT Strategy, Strategic Planning Society, September.

Habib, M. M., Pathik, B. B., & Maryam, H. (2018). Research methodology-contemporary practices: guidelines for academic researchers. Cambridge Scholars Publishing

Hamel G., & Prahalad C.K. (1989). “Strategic Intent” Harvard Business Review, 67(3), 63-78.

Hatch, M. J., & Cunliffe, A. (2016). Organization Theory: modern, postmodern, and symbolic perspectives.

Hawawini, G., & Viallet, C. (1999). Finance for Executives (South Western College, Cincinnati, OH).

Hitt, M. A., R. Ireland, D., & Hoskisson, R. E. (2019). Strategic Management, Competitiveness and Globalization, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, USA.

Jumba, C.M (2017), The effect of corporate culture on project performance at Nation Media Group. , unpublished MBA project, Kenyatta University, Kenya

Jyothibabu, C., Farooq, A., & Pradhan, B. B. (2019). An integrated scale for measuring and organizational learning system. Learning Organization, 27, 303-327.

Kiessling, T. S., Richey, R. G., Meng, J., & Dabic, M. (2019). Exploring knowledge management to organizational performance outcome in a transitional economy. Journal of World Business, 44, 421-433.

Kim, W.e., and Mauborgne, R.A. (2018). 'Implementing Global Strategies: The Rol of Procedural Justice: 'Management Journal, 12,125-143.

Makambe, U., & Pellissier, R. (2019). A model for knowledge management practices in a higher education setting. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3(11), 1-14.

Mason, E.C. (1939). Price and production policies of large-scale enterprise. American Economic Review, 29, 61–74.

Mugenda, A. G. (2018). Social Science Research; Theory and Principles. Nairobi: Arts Services.

Mugenda, O. M., & Mugenda, A. G. (2018).Research Methods Dictionary.Nairobi: Arts Press.

Mugenda, O.M, & Mugenda, A.G. (2003). Research Methods.Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi, Kenya. Acts Press.

Mutia, P. M. (2015). Strategic leadership and its influence on church growth in Kenya Unpublished PhD Thesis, Nairobi: United States International University – Africa.

Myers, M.D. (2019). Qualitative Research in Business Management .London: Sage Publication Ltd.

Popadiuk, S., & Choo, S.W. (2016). Innovation and knowledge creation: How are these concepts related? International Journal of Information Management, 26, 302-312.

Porter, M. (2018). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York: Harvard Business Review

Raible, M. (2019). Industrial Organization theory and its contribution to decisionmaking in purchasing. University of Twente, The Netherlands

Rajan, R. G., & Zingales, L. (1995). What do we know about capital structure? Some evidence from international data. The journal of Finance, 50(5), 1421-1460.

Smith, R. & Warner, M. (2019). Environmental Dynamism, Financial Leverage and

Performance: A Theoretical Integration and an Empirical Test. Strategic Management Journal, pp. 31-49

Soko, J. (2014). Intangible assets for sustainable competitive advantage in institutes of higher learning: A case of Kenya. Msingi Journal, 1(1), 1-25.

Stiglitz, J. E. (2019). Regulation and the theory of market and government failure. Retrieved from download/papers/2009_Regulation_Theory_Failure.pdf

Szpakowski, S. (2017). Making sense of strategy in an uncertain world, Oxford Leadership Journal, 2(1).

Zikmund, W.G. (2017). Business Research Methods.7th edition, Thomson South Western, Ohio.


  • There are currently no refbacks.