Edwin Wanyonyi Nabalia, Dr. Samson Paul Nyang’au


The primary purpose of this research was to examine how commercial banks in Kiambu County adopt strategic implementation practices to gain a competitive edge. The specific objectives of these study were to determine effect of resource allocation on competitive advantage, to investigate influence of strategy communication on overall competitive advantage of commercial banks in Kiambu County. The variables studied were resource allocation, and strategy communication. The study was anchored on the resource-based theory, and institutional theory. A descriptive research design was used for this investigation focusing on a target population of 220 employees from commercial banks in Kiambu County. The target population came from four different departments: customer service, corporate and operations, finance and accounts and innovation department. Purposive sampling technique was used in the collection of data where closed ended questionnaires were administered to the respondents. The data was collected using google forms.  The data collected was presented in form of charts, tables and graphs. The result were a representative sample size of 142 employees in Kiambu County drawn from top five performing commercial banks. Quantitative data as used in the analysis, with SPSS Version 28.0 for both descriptive and inferential purposes. Pilot study was conducted to measure the research instrument’s reliability and validity.  The study established that resource allocation, and strategy communication have a significant influence on the competitive advantage of commercial banks (R=0.859). The study recommended that banks should allocate resources with their strategic priorities. In addition, the study recommended that there should be more emphasis on strategy communication to all stakeholders before implementation.

Key Words: strategic implementation practices, resource allocation, competitive advantage, strategy communication 

Full Text:



Abu, F., Gholami, H., Saman, M. Z. M., Zakuan, N., & Streimikiene, D. (2019). The implementation of lean manufacturing in the furniture industry: A review and analysis on the motives, barriers, challenges, and the applications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2(34), 660-680.

Adom, A. Y. (2018). The role of commission-based pay on employee retention in the Ghanaian banking industry: The case of GCB Bank Limited. Africa’s Public Service Delivery and Performance Review, 6(1), 1-5.

Alshumrani, S., Baird, K., & Munir, R. (2022). Management innovation: the influence of institutional pressures and the impact on competitive advantage. International Journal of Manpower, 43(5), 1204-1220.

Barney, J. B., Ketchen Jr, D. J., & Wright, M. (2021). Resource-based theory and the value creation framework. Journal of Management, 47(7), 1936-1955.

Bhuiyan, F., Rana, T., Baird, K., & Munir, R. (2023). Strategic outcome of competitive advantage from corporate sustainability practices: Institutional theory perspective from an emerging economy. Business Strategy and the Environment.

Bindra, S., Parameswar, N., & Dhir, S. (2019). Strategic management: The evolution of the field. Strategic Change, 28(6), 469-478.

Cantú, A., Aguiñaga, E., & Scheel, C. (2021). Learning from failure and success: The challenges for circular economy implementation in SMEs in an emerging economy. Sustainability, 13(3), 1529.

Coelho, F. J., Bairrada, C. M., & de Matos Coelho, A. F. (2020). Functional brand qualities and perceived value: The mediating role of brand experience and brand personality. Psychology & Marketing, 37(1), 41-55.

Deng, W., Xu, J., Zhao, H., & Song, Y. (2020). A novel gate resource allocation method using improved PSO-based QEA. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 23(3), 1737-1745.

Dudic, Z., Dudic, B., Gregus, M., Novackova, D., & Djakovic, I. (2020). The innovativeness and usage of the balanced scorecard model in SMEs. Sustainability, 12(8), 3221.

Dulewicz, V. (1995). A validation of Belbin's team roles from 16PF and OPQ using bosses' ratings of competence. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 68(2), 81-99.

Economics and Management Sciences, 8(1), 17-27.)

Friend, S. B., Johnson, J. S., & Ranjan, K. R. (2020). An antecedent and contingent outcome model of fail fast strategy in sales force management. Industrial Marketing Management, 8(7), 106-116.

Gao, S., Low, S. P., & Simin Ng, S. (2021). Understanding the role of trade unions in improving construction productivity through the institutional framework. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 70(3), 592-612.

Ghosh, S. (2022). Does financial interconnectedness affect monetary transmission? Evidence from India. Macroeconomics and Finance in Emerging Market Economies, 15(3), 273-300.

Grosse, R., Wocke, A., & Mthombeni, M. (2022). Explaining the performance of South African firms. International Journal of Emerging Markets, (ahead-of-print).

Halkos, G., & Nomikos, S. (2021). Corporate social responsibility: Trends in global reporting initiative standards. Economic Analysis and Policy, 69, 106-117.

Hanelt, A., Bohnsack, R., Marz, D., & Antunes Marante, C. (2021). A systematic review of the literature on digital transformation: Insights and implications for strategy and organizational change. Journal of Management Studies, 58(5), 1159-1197.

Harrigan, K. R., & Wing, B. M. (2021). Corporate renewal and turnaround of troubled businesses: The private equity advantage. Strategic Management Review, 2(2), 363-90.

Higgs, M., & Dulewicz, S. V. (2003). The design of a new instrument to assess leadership dimensions and styles.

Iravo, M., Ongori, J. & Munene, C. (2013). Factors affecting the performance of hotels and restaurants in Kenya. A case of Kisii County. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business. 4(12), 897-928.

Jengwa, E., & Pellissier, R. (2022). An operational excellence strategy implementation model for growth in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. Acta Commercii, 22(1), 1-11.

Journal, 39(2), 179

Kang, M., & Um, K. H. (2023). Combining internal quality-oriented product design with external supplier involvement for enhancing operational performance: the moderating role of product modularity. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management.

Ketchen Jr, D. J., & Craighead, C. W. (2020). Research at the intersection of entrepreneurship, supply chain management, and strategic management: Opportunities highlighted by COVID-19. Journal of Management, 46(8), 1330-1341.

Kumar, S. (2019). The McKinsey 7S Model helps in Strategy implementation: A Theoretical Foundation. Tecnia Journal of Management Studies, 14(1).

Lieberman, M., 2021. Is competitive advantage intellectually sustainable. Strategic Management Review, 2(1), pp.29-46.

Lowe, G. (2020). Creating Healthly Organizations, Revised and Expanded Edition: Taking Action to Improve Employee Well-Being. University of Toronto Press.

Lu, Z., Wu, J., Li, H., & Nguyen, D. K. (2022). Local bank, digital financial inclusion and SME financing constraints: Empirical evidence from China. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 58(6), 1712-1725.

Moerschell, L., & Novak, S. S. (2020). Managing crisis in a university setting: The challenge of alignment. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 28(1), 30-40.

Muogbo, U. S. (2013). The impact of strategic management on organisational growth and development (A study of selected manufacturing firms in Anambra state). IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 7(1), 24-32.

Mwirigi, R.N., Maina, S. and Kimencu, L., 2018. Value Based Customer Relationship Management and Satisfaction of Commercial Banks’ Account Holders in Kenya. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(5), 260-289

Nag, R., Hambrick, D. C., & Chen, M. J. (2007). What is strategic management, really? Inductive derivation of a consensus definition of the field. Strategic management journal, 28(9), 935-955.

Nardi, D., Waite, R., Nowak, M., Hatcher, B., Hines‐Martin, V., & Stacciarini, J. M. R. (2020). Achieving health equity through eradicating structural racism in the United States: A call to action for nursing leadership. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 52(6), 696-704.

Patrucco, A., Frattini, F., & Di Benedetto, A. (2022). Characteristics of supplier performance measurement systems in collaborative innovation projects: the role of the purchasing department. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 27(2), 207-231.

Rafiq, M., Zhang, X., Yuan, J., Naz, S., & Maqbool, S. (2020). Impact of a balanced scorecard as a strategic management system tool to improve sustainable development: measuring the mediation of organizational performance through PLS-smart. Sustainability, 12(4), 1365.

Shan, S., Luo, Y., Zhou, Y., & Wei, Y. (2019). Big data analysis adaptation and enterprises’ competitive advantages: the perspective of dynamic capability and resource-based theories. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 31(4), 406-420.

Singh, J., Flaherty, K., Sohi, R. S., Deeter-Schmelz, D., Habel, J., Le Meunier-FitzHugh, K., ... & Onyemah, V. (2019). Sales profession and professionals in the age of digitization and artificial intelligence technologies: concepts, priorities, and questions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 39(1), 2-22.

Smidt, A. M., Adams-Clark, A. A., & Freyd, J. J. (2023). Institutional courage buffers against institutional betrayal, protects employee health, and fosters organizational commitment following workplace sexual harassment. Plos one, 18(1), e0278830.

Stoelhorst, J. W. (2021). Value, rent, and profit: A stakeholder resource‐based theory. Strategic Management Journal.

Su, C. W., Qin, M., Rizvi, S. K. A., & Umar, M. (2021). Bank competition in China: a blessing or a curse for financial system?. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 34(1), 1244-1264.

Suwanda, S., & Nugroho, B. Y. (2022). Literature reviews: McKinsey 7S model to support organizational performance. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 38, 1-9.

Velasco, C. (2022). Monopoly and competition: the Kenyan commercial banks at the end of the colonial period (1954–1963). Business History, 64(6), 1071-1087.

Waiganjo, E., Mukulu, E. & Khariri, J. (2012). Relationship between Strategic Human Resource Management & Firm Performance of Kenya’s Corporate Organizations. International Journal of Humanities & Social Science. 2(10), 62-70.

Walletzký, L., Carrubbo, L., Badr, N. G., Dragoicea, M., Toli, A. M., & Badawi, S. (2023). Reconfiguring the service system for resilience: Lessons learned in the Higher Education context. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing.

Yang, Y., Yang, F., & Zhao, X. (2022). The impact of the quality of environmental information disclosure on financial performance: The moderating effect of internal and external stakeholders. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(45), 68796-68814.


  • There are currently no refbacks.