Alex H. Abuya Odoyo, Dr. Maurice Pedo


This study sought to determine the relationship between process variations and project overruns by focusing on two variation elements, project design, and project planning. The study was guided by triple constraint Theory, and project performance Theory. This study employed a descriptive research design. The target population for this study was manufacturing industries in Machakos County. The unit of analysis was manufacturing industry in Machakos County (according to Kenya Association of Manufacturer 2021-2022 annual publication) while the unit of observation was key project team members representing different organizational functions namely; designated head of department for procurement, finance, technical and project manager. The study used Taro Yamane Formulae to come up with a sample size for research. Primary data was used in this study and it was collected to use of a questionnaire. After the data collected, it was subjected to editing, coding, categorizing and keyed into statistical package for social science computer software for analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used in analyzing the data. The data was presented using tables, charts and graphs; subsequently findings were discussed, conclusions drawn, recommendations for the study made, and further research suggested. The study concludes that project design variation has a significant effect on project overruns in manufacturing industries in Machakos County. In addition, the study concludes that project planning variation has a significant effect on project overruns in manufacturing industries in Machakos County. Based on the findings, this study recommends that the management of manufacturing companies in Machakos County should ensures effective project design practices to minimize chances of project overruns. In addition, the management of manufacturing companies in Machakos County should ensure effective project planning practices to minimize chances of project overruns.


Key Words: process variations, project overruns, project design, project planning

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