Charles Waswa Wafula, Karim Omido, Amina Ndinya, Mwagandi Mwakio, Erastus Nyile


The research aimed to contribute to understanding the subject matter on the relationship between pharmaceutical industry regulations and pharmacy business performance in Taita Taveta County. The research utilised a descriptive study that was designed to collect, organise and analyse data, and present the study results. The population of the study was forty pharmacies from four sub-counties of Taita Taveta. Questionnaires were prepared to collect primary data and sent to respondents and follow-up calls were used to increase response rate. Secondary data was also used from the pharmacy records at the county offices and pharmacy websites. Data collected was analysed and the results presented. The study results indicate that there was a strong positive significant relationship between pharmaceutical industry regulation adherence and enforcement and the performance of the pharmacy businesses in Taita Taveta County. The study recommends to the pharmaceutical industry strict adherence and enforcement of regulations to regulate businesses that operate pharmacy outlets and shops within Taita Taveta. Further, the pharmaceutical industry should ensure that the products that they stock meet the prescribed standards and are of the desired quality.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical Industry Regulation, Regulations Adherence, Regulations Reinforcement

Full Text:



Akomea, S.Y. &Yeboah, J.K. (2011).Market orientation and firm performance in Ghana's pharmaceutical industry. Journal of service research, 1(2), pp. 108-28

Arentz, O., Recker, C., Vuong, V. A., &Wambach, A. (2016). Entry in German pharmacy market (No. 02/2016).Otto-Wolff-Discussion Paper.

Attridge, C. J., &Preker, A. S. (2005).Improving access to medicines in developing countries: Application of new institutional economics to the analysis of manufacturing and distribution issues.

Cooper, D., R., &Shindler, P., S. (2003). Business Research Methods McGraw Hill: New York.

Fisher, L. D. (1998). Self‐designing clinical trials. Statistics in medicine, 17(14), 1551-1562.

Franken, M., Stolk, E., Scharringhausen, T., de Boer, A., &Koopmanschap, M. (2015). A comparative study of the role of disease severity in drug reimbursement decision making in four European countries. Health Policy, 119(2), 195-202.

Grande, D. (2010). Limiting the influence of pharmaceutical industry gifts on physicians: self-regulation or government intervention. Journal of general internal medicine, 25(1), 79-83.

Grundy, Q., Parker, L., Wong, A. et al. Disclosure, transparency, and accountability: a qualitative survey of public sector pharmaceutical committee conflict of interest policies in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region. Global Health 18, 33 (2022). htt ps://

Jacobsen, K. H. (2011). Introduction to health research methods. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Keitany, K. K., &Moronge, M. (2013). Influence of supply chain management practices in combating counterfeits in Kenya: Case of pharmaceutical companies in Nairobi County. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(5), 867-881.

Keoluangkhot, V., Green, M. D., Nyadong, L., Fernández, F. M., Mayxay, M., & Newton, P. N. (2008).Impaired clinical response in a patient with uncomplicated falciparum malaria who received poor-quality and underdosed intramuscular artemether. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 78(4), 552-555.

Knecht, M. (2013).Diversification, industry dynamism, and economic performance: The impact of dynamic-related diversification on the multi-business firm. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kiswili, N. E., Shale, I. N., & Osoro, A. (2021). Influence of Supply Chain Leagility on Performance of Humanitarian Aid Organizations in Kenya. Journal of Business and Economic Development, 6(1), 37.

Marshall, C., &Rossman, G. B. (2014).Designing qualitative research. Sage publications.

Matowe, L., Waako, P., Adome, R. O., Kibwage, I., Minzi, O., &Bienvenu, E. (2008). A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management. Human resources for health, 6(1), 30.

Mugenda M. &Mugenda A, (2003).Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.

Mwabu, G., Wang’ombe, J., Nganda, B., &Gakura, O. (2002).Financing Medical Care through Insurance: Policy Lessons from Household‐and Community‐Level Analysis in Kenya. African Development Review, 14(1), 75-97.

Ngari, J. (2014). Relational capital and business performance of pharmaceutical firms in Kenya. International journal of science

Ngari, J. M. K., &Muiruri, J. K. (2014).Effects of financial innovations on the financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya.

Nyile, E. K., Shale, I. N., & Osoro, A. (2022). Supply Chain Responsiveness and Performance of Humanitarian Aid Organizations in Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences Management and Entrepreneurship (IJSSME), 6(2).

Opiyo, J. O. (2006). Responses of pharmaceutical importers to the challenge of illegal trade in pharmaceuticals (Doctoral dissertation).

Pambel, G. (2013). Factors affecting the profitability of pharmacy. (Unpublished MBA projects), University of Witwatersrand, South Africa.

Pharmacy and Poison Board (2006).Guidelines for good distribution practices.

Prapavessis, H., Grove, J. R., McNair, P. J., & Cable, N. T. (1992). Self-regulation training, state anxiety, and sports performance: A psychophysiological case study. The Sport Psychologist, 6(3), 213-229.

Ruta, D., &Gabrys, B. (2005).Classifier selection for majority voting Information fusion, 6(1), 63-81.

Stephano, P. (2017). Perceived adherence to expected social manners and academic performances among students in secondary schools (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Dodoma).

Sureshchandar, G, S., Rajchdean, C.A., &Anantharaman, R.N. (2002).The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction – a factor specific approach. Journal of service marketing, vol. 16, No.4 pp, 363-79

Wilkinson, R. G., & Marmot, M. (Eds.). (2003). Social determinants of health: the solid facts. World Health Organization.

World Health Organization. (2007). Everybody's business--strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: whose framework for action.

Philipsen (2013) argued that reinforcement of pharmaceutical firms regulations provide a better solution in profitability than stricter entry or conduct requirements alone without buttressing.

Philipsen, N. J. (2013). Regulation of pharmacists: a comparative law and economics analysis. The European journal of comparative economics, 10(2), 225-241.

Wafula, F. N., Miriti, E. M., & Goodman, C. A. (2012).Examining characteristics, knowledge and regulatory practices of specialized drug shops in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the literature. BMC health services research, 12(1), 223.

Pampel, G. (2013). Factors affecting the profitability of pharmacies (Doctoral dissertation).

Alam, N., Zainuddin, S. S. B., &Rizvi, S. A. R. (2019).Ramifications of varying banking regulations on performance of Islamic Banks. Borsa Istanbul Review, 19(1), 49-64.

Naceur, S. B., &Omran, M. (2011). The effects of bank regulations, competition, and financial reforms on banks' performance. Emerging markets review, 12(1), 1-20.

Ramanathan, R., He, Q., Black, A., Ghobadian, A., &Gallear, D. (2017). Environmental regulations, innovation and firm performance: A revisit of the Porter hypothesis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 155, 79-92.

Li, R., &Ramanathan, R. (2018).Exploring the relationships between different types of environmental regulations and environmental performance: Evidence from China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 196, 1329-1340.

Black,M(1992),AlanPaton and the Rule of Law ,African Affairs ,91,53-72

Whiting, R. (2004). Structuring Business Performance Management. ITNews (retrieved on April 15, 2005, from http://www.itnews.

Fitzpatrick JJ, McCarthy G., RNYT R, eds. Nursing Concept Analysis: Applications to Research and Practice. Springer; 201

American College of Clinical Pharmacy, Research Affairs Committee, Fagan SC, Touchette D, Smith JA, Sowinski KM, Dolovich L, et al. The state of science and research in clinical pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy 2006; 26(7):1027–1040.

Scahill et al (2017). Defining pharmacy and its practice: a conceptual model for an international audience, Integrated Pharmacy Research and Pratice 20176:121129,DOI: 10.2147/IPRP.S124866

Wafula, F., Abuya,T., Amin,A., and Goodman,C (2014). The policy-practice gap: Describing discordances between regulation on paper and real-life practices among specialized drug shops in Kenya. BMS Health Services. 14(1):394


  • There are currently no refbacks.