Settlement experiences can be challenging and difficult for refugee communities and individuals. There is no doubt that people who have lived for long periods in refugee camps had difficult experiences and faced a high level of poverty, including low levels of education or no education at all. Some have suffered terribly from posttraumatic disorder as a result of conflict and displacement. Due to the influx of Somali refugees in Kenya, the three permanent solutions to the predicament of refugees were deemed impossible to implement. The governments of Somalia and Kenya together with the UNHCR signed a tripartite agreement which was to oversee voluntary repatriation of the exiled individuals. Integration of refugee returnees with their organization local community has been faced by challenges. There is need to address the challenges to have successful integration of Somali refugee returnees into the original local community. The current study aimed at addressing the existing research gap by establishing the determinants of successful integration of Somali refugee returnees into the local community in Somalia. This research problem was studied through the use of a descriptive survey design. The target population of the study will be 1085 household of refuges return in Somalia and 75 UNHCR officials in Somalia. The sample size of the study was 314 respondents. The questionnaire was selected instrument or tool for data collection for the study. The researcher used trained research assistants to administer the questionnaires to all the respondents of the study. The study was carried out a pilot study to pretest and validate the questionnaire. Quantitative data collected was analysed by the use of descriptive statistics using SPSS and presented through percentages, means, standard deviations and frequencies. The information was displayed by use of bar charts, graphs and pie charts and in prose-form. Content analysis was used to test data that is qualitative in nature or aspect of the data collected from the open-ended questions. Multiple regressions were done to establish the determinants of successful integration of Somali refugee returnees into the local community in Somalia. The study conducted a correlation analysis to establish the strength of the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable. The study established that family support system affected successful integration of Somali refugee returnees into the local community. The study further revealed that language affects successful integration of Somali refugee returnees into the local community in Somalia to great extent. The study revealed that social-cultural factors positively affect successful integration of Somali refugee returnees into the local community in Somalia. The study found that government support system affect successful integration of Somali refugee returnees into the local community in Somalia.

Full Text:



Abdiwahab, A (2010) Urban Refugees Reintergration: A Case Study Of Nairobi's Eastleigh Somali Refugees. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Nairobi

Arboleda, E. (2011). Refugee definition in Africa and Latin America: The lessons of pragmatism. International Journal of Refugee Law, 3 (2), Oxford University Press.

Arbona, J., Flore J., and Novy B. (1995). African refugees with interrupted schooling in the high school mainstream: dilemmas for teachers. Prospect 20(2): 19-33.

Berry, J.W., Poortinga, Y.H., Segall, M.H., & Dasen, P.R. (2003). Cross Cultural Psychology Research and Applications (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Bessa, T. (2009). From political instrument to protection tool? Resettlement of refugees and North-South Relations. Refuge, 26 (1) 91-100.

Bodomo, A. B. (2009). On Language And Development In Africa: The Case of Ghana. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from Ghanaweb:

Brofenbrenner, U. (Ed.). (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Butler, D. L. (2014). Developing Your Support System. Retrieved January 15, 2014, from University of Buffalo - School of Social Work:

Castles, S., Maja, K., Ellie, V., & Steven, V. (2015). Integration: Mapping the Field. Home Office Report. Oxford: Centre for Migration and Policy Research and Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford.

Crisp, J. (2010) Africa's refugees: Patterns, problems and policy challenges. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 18(2) 157-178.

Department of Labour (2014) Refugee voices: A journey towards resettlement. New Zealand Immigration Service. Department of Labour. Wellington.

Frelick, B. (2013). Opinion. The right of return. International Journal of Refugee Law, 2 (3) 441-447. Oxford University Press.

Gituma, C. N (2013) Factors influencing the attainment of durable solutions for refugees; a case of Somali refugees living in Eastleigh, Nairobi County, Kenya. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Nairobi

Harte, W., Childs, I., Hastings, P (2009), Settlement patterns of African Refugee Communities in southeast Queensland, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, Australian Geographer, vol. 40, no. 1.

Huillery, E. (2016). Colonisation and development in the former French West Africa: The long-term impact of the colonial public policy. Retrieved November 2 2011.

Kagan, M. (2011). We live in a country of UNHCR: The UN surrogate state and refugee policy in the Middle East. UNHCR New Issues in Refugee Research, Research paper No. 201, UNHCR. Policy Development and Evaluation Service.

Kamau, V. K (2014) Factors Influencing Integration of Refugees into the Local Community in Dadaab, Garissa County, Kenya. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Nairobi

Kate, H & Kathleen, J (2011). Family Unity and Refugee Protection. Berkeley: Migration Policy Institute, Washington, D.C.

Kucera, A. (2011). Eine psychosoziale Studie über Migrationserfahrungen am Beispiel von in Wien lebenden bosnischen Flüchtlingen, thesis. Vienna: University of Vienna.

Mbae, W. G (2013) Towards a Durable Solution to Refugee Crisis in Kenya: A Critical Analysis of Refugee Resettlement (Programme). Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Nairobi

Montgomery, E. (1991). Refugee definition in Africa and Latin America: The lessons of pragmatism. International Journal of Refugee Law, 3 (2), Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 24 2011,

Mungania, F. M (2014) The Influence Of The Implementation Of UNHCR Economic Empowerment Programmes On The Refugee Livelihoods In Dadaab Camp: A Case Of Hagadera Camp. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Nairobi

Murithi, M. M (2012) Voluntary Repatriation and Resettlement of Refugees in Kenya. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Nairobi

Nicholl, C., Thompson, A (2014). The psychological treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in adult refugees: A review of the current state of psychological therapies, Taylor and Frances, Journal of Mental Health, Vol. 4, pp. 351 – 362.

Padilla, E.R., (1980), Mapping the field: current issues in refugee education, in Refugee Education: mapping the field, ed. Matthews, J. 2008. Schooling and settlement: refugee education in Australia. International Studies in the Sociology of Education 18(1): 31-45.

Portes, Alejandro and Min Zhou. (2003). The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants, in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 530, 74-96.

Portes, Alejandro and Ruben G. Rumbaut. (1990). Immigrant America: A Portrait. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Refugee Council of Australia (2011) website viewed on 22nd August, 2016.

Rutter, J. (2006). Refugee Children in the UK. Maidenhead. Berkshire, England: Open University Press.

Rutter, M. (1999). Resilience Concepts and Findings: Implication for Family Therapy. Journal of Family Therapy, 21(2), 119-144.

Sapir, E. (2009). The Status of Linguistics as a Science. In, Language. vol.5 , 207 - 219.

Sara, P., Samir, E., & Pantuliano, S. (2010). Hidden and exposed: Urban refugees in Nairobi Kenya. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Tipping, S (2010). Meaningful Being: The experiences of Young Sudanese-Australians, PhD research, University of Melbourne

Turner, M., Fozdar, F (2010). Negotiating ‘Community’ in educational settings: adult south Sudanese students in Australia, Taylor & Francis group, Journal of Intercultural Studies, vol. 31, no. 4. University, Melbourne, Australia

UN General Assembly. (2011). ‗Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.‘. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UNGA Resolution 217 A (III) (hereinafter ‗Universal Declaration‘), Art. 14(1). Geneva: United Nations General Assembly.

UNHCR. (2010). 2009 Global trends: Refugees, asylum-seekers, returnees, internally displaced and stateless persons. Retrieved October 8, 2016.

Victoria Immigrant & Refugee Centre society. (2014). Common Adjustment Problems Facing Immigrants and refugees. Retrieved February 28, 2016, from Victoria Immigrant & Refugee Centre society:

Zetter, R. (2011). Labelling refugees: Forming and transforming a bureaucratic identity. Journal of Refugee Studies, 4(1): 39-62.


  • There are currently no refbacks.