Characterization of Diarrhoeal Bacteria and Their Susceptibility to Guava Leaf (Psidium Guajava) Extract in Vihiga County, Kenya

Bruno Isiaho Ilote, Dr. George Opande, Dr. Loice Mureithi


Introduction: Diarrhoea is a disease characterized by loose, watery stool or frequent need to a bowel movement. It may last a few days then disappear without treatment or it can be acute or chronic. It can also be caused by various parasites apart from; fungi, viruses and toxic chemicals This research was carried out within the sub-counties in Vihiga County to characterize the pathogenic intestinal bacteria causing diarrhoea and to determine the susceptibility testing of pure cultures of pathogenic intestinal bacteria identified against Psidium guajava leaf extracts.


Methodology: Data on pathogenic intestinal bacteria causing diarrhoea was obtained from all the Sub-County Hospitals Microbiology Laboratory records and the District Health Information System (DHIS) since 2019-2022, the etiological agents of diarrhoea in humans that had the highest frequencies were identified to be Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysentriae, and recorded. The pure cultures of the identified pathogenic bacteria were obtained from Friends Jumuia Hospital Kaimosi Microbiology Laboratory. Susceptibility testing of the obtained pure cultures and Psidium guajava leaf extracts was done and their different Zones of Inhibition and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration identified to ascertain if they are of medicinal value.


Results: The results showed both active principles (Carvacrol and thymol) were present in extract A; while extract B, only thymol was identified. The highest concentration in the extracts was Carvacrol with 4.3762 mg/mL in extract A. On the growth of Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae on Psidium guajava, the highest zone of inhibition was demonstrated against Escherichia coli (9.23mm) by ethanol extracts of leaf. The lowest zone of inhibition was demonstrated against Shigella dysentriae (3.49mm) by water extracts of leaf. There was significant difference in growth inhibition among the extracts at P≤0.05. Acetone extracts had no effect on Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysentriae. Escherichia coli (25mg/ml) with the highest inhibition observed against Salmonella typhi (9.13 µM) at 100 mg/ml of acetone extracts.


Conclusion: From the study, it is evident that the Ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaf extract is of medicinal value but only in lower concentrations on some microorganism. Tests performed in this study, where Tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids and Terpernoids were identified all of which have antibacterial effects, also carvacrol which is a chemical substance with broad antibacterial activity against microorganisms inhibiting bacterial growth was present.


Keywords: Psidium guajava, Zone of inhibition, Carvacrol and thymol

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